The tricycle is a vehicle with three wheels of equal diameter. The front wheel, or wheels, shall be steer able; the rear wheel, or wheels, shall be driven through a system comprising pedals and a chain. Wheels of the tricycle may vary in diameter between 70 cm maximum and 55 cm minimum, including the tyre, using conventional cycle components.
Modified hub attachments may be used if necessary. The width of tricycle double wheels may vary between 85 cm maximum and 60 cm minimum, measured at the centre of each tyre where the tyres touch the ground. If a tricycle two-wheel rear axle does not have a differential, only one wheel must be driven, due to the different speeds of the wheels in bends.
A tricycle shall not measure more than 200 cm in length and 95 cm in width overall. In road races, it is recommended that a tricycle with two rear wheels should be fitted with a safety bar to prevent the front wheel of a following tricycle from entering the space between the rear wheels. A safety bar must not exceed the width of each rear wheel tyre and all tube ends closed or plugged.
The hand cycle is an upright or semi-recumbent three-wheel vehicle with an open frame of tubular construction. The single wheel may be of a different diameter to the double wheels. The front wheel, or wheels, shall be steerable, the single wheel, either front or rear, shall be driven through a system comprising handgrips and a chain.
The rider shall be seated in a relatively upright position, with bodyweight supported through the seat. A backrest is permitted, but the riding position must not be reclined backwards to the extent that the backrest provides the primary upper body support. A minimum angle of 45 degrees, measured between horizontal and the back of the rider, should meet this requirement and the position must allow for all-round vision. A quick release body harness is permitted.
The hand cycle shall be propelled solely, through a chain set and conventional cycle drive train, of crank arms, chain wheels, chain and gears, with handgrips replacing foot pedals. Cranks need not be at 180 to each other. Motive power shall be from the hands, arms and upper body only. Wheels of the hand cycle may vary in diameter between 70 cm maximum and 48 cm minimum, including the tyre, using conventional cycle components.
An (ETRTO) 406 mm wheel rim shall be the minimum size permitted. Modified hub attachments may be used if necessary. The width of hand cycle double wheels may vary between 85 cm maximum and 60 cm minimum, measured at the centre of each tyre where the tyres touch the ground. A hand cycle shall not measure more than 250 cm in length and 90 cm in width overall.
The largest chain wheel shall have a guard securely fitted to protect the rider. The rider’s vision must not be obscured, particularly by the bottom bracket, cranks, chain wheels, chain wheel guards, gears and brake levers. Maximum frame tube dimension shall be 80 mm, irrespective of tube material, or profile. Any fillets, or ribs, inserted at joins between tubes, shall be for strengthening purposes only. Non-functional, aerodynamic devices are not permitted for competition.
Leg and foot rests shall be fitted as necessary, with a secure means of protecting static lower limbs from all moving parts. In road races, it is recommended that a hand cycle with two rear wheels should be fitted with a safety bar to prevent the front wheel of a following hand cycle from entering the space between the rear wheels. A safety bar must not exceed the width of each rear wheel tyre and all tube ends closed or plugged.
All cycles used in IPC championships and IPC sanctioned, or approved races have to meet the current requirements of the UCI EQUIPMENT REGULATIONS, (Part I, Chapter III). For morphological, or disability reasons, exceptions may be permitted, but the principle of the UCI regulations for cycles must be followed.
For example: A handlebar adaptation is allowed for athletes with upper limb disabilities, if the athlete needs the adaptation to operate gear and brake levers, there is no unfair aerodynamic advantage and safety is not compromised.
Artificial handgrips and prosthesis are allowed on upper disabled limbs, but not fixed to the cycle. For reasons of safety in the event of a fall, rigid prosthetic adaptations, mounted or fixed on parts of the cycle, are not allowed. Except for hand cycles, a cyclist’s position shall be supported solely by the pedals, the saddle and the handlebar.
Athletes with above knee amputation may use a support for the thigh only if, for safety reasons, there is no fixation of the thigh to the bicycle. This means, that the support may be a half tube attached to the cycle, with a closed base and maximum of 10 cm closed side at the base, but no thigh fixing devices are permitted.
Road bicycles, tandems, tricycles and hand cycles must have two independent braking systems. Bicycles and tandems must have an independent brake on each wheel, but the brakes on tricycles and hand cycles may be fitted to the most appropriate wheel(s).
The tandem is a vehicle for two cyclists, with two wheels of equal diameter, which conforms to the general principles of UCI construction for bicycles. The front wheel shall be steer able by the front rider, known as the ‘pilot’. Both riders shall face forward in the traditional cycling position and the rear wheel shall be driven by both cyclists through a system comprising pedals and chains. The tandem top tube and any additional strengthening tubes, may slope to suit the morphological sizes of the riders.
UCI Para Cycling Regulation